New GRE Verbal Questions. Free.
New Verbal Question Types for GRE Practice
Tips & Strategies for solving the new GRE Verbal Question Types

There are three New types of Verbal Questions introduced in the GRE.

These are:

  • Text Completion

  • Sentence Equivalence

  • Reading Comprehension
The two new types of questions under RC are
  •  Multiple answers correct
  •  Passage select in.

Let us look at each of these in more details and strategies to tackle them.
Tips & Strategies for solving the new GRE Verbal Question Types -
Text Completion

The answer choices for multiple blank questions are independent of each other, e.g. in case the
answer choice for the first blank is (ii), it is NOT necessary that the answer choice for the second
blank should be (ii) as well.

You need to get ALL answer choices correct to get marks. You will
not get any marks for
partially correct choices.


In order to score high in this section, keep in mind the following points:

• First Read through the passage to get an
overall idea of the topic.

• Identify
Key words or phrases, which will help you zero down on the right answers.

• It is not necessary that the first blank should be filled first. If you are having trouble with the first
blank, try to see if you can spot the answer for the
second blank first and then revisit the first
blank.

Sample Questions and how to tackle them

1.        When he enrolled at the university, he had only the (i) ________ notion of what his field
of study should be.  After the conclusion of his first year, however, he was (ii) __________ it
should be finance.  He seemed to have a natural (iii) ________ for the subject.

Blank (i) lucid, candor, vaguest  
Blank (ii) ambivalent, certain, apparent
Blank (iii) aptitude, aversion, antipathy


2.        Desiring to spend more time with his wife and children, John left his (i) _________ career
as a stockbroker and became a teacher.  This required a number of sacrifices since his lower
income was not ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ (ii) __________ to the higher lifestyle to which his family had
become accustomed.   Among other things, the things that they could choose to do for
entertainment became (iii) __________.  They now relied exclusively on DVD rentals instead of
spending the extra money to go to the theatre.

Blank (i) lucrative, flexible, menial
Blank (ii) unfavorable, unseemly, conducive
Blank (iii) expansive, illuminating, limited


3.        Because of all his tattoos and piercings, he was often regarded as nothing but an illiterate
(i) _________ by those who did not know him.   Those who knew him disagreed with this (ii)
________.  They described him as a person of great (iii) ________.

Blank (i) savant, conformist, rebel
Blank (ii) assessment, achievement, parody
Blank (iii) inanity, acumen, idiocy


4.        It is my recommendation that the (i) _________ skier purchase equipment that is
adequate, but inexpensive.  A larger investment can be made once a certain skill level is (ii)
_________.  Regardless of the skill level, however, the purchase and wearing of a well-
constructed helmet is (iii) ________ for your protection.

Blank (i) advanced, novice, superior
Blank (ii) atoned, derived, attained
Blank (iii) essential, superfluous, redundant


5.        Amanda was (i) ________ when she spied her ex-boyfriend walking arm-in-arm with
another woman and (ii) ________ turned the corner to avoid meeting them face-to-face.  As she
did so, she tripped and lay (iii) _________ on the pavement, from which position she was forced
to acknowledge the couple’s greeting.

Blank (i) elated, indifferent, distraught
Blank (ii) languidly, abruptly, voraciously
Blank (iii) akimbo, sprawled, strewn


6.        Visibility was greatly (i) ________ by the thick fog.   A car’s lights suddenly (ii) ______ in
front of us, and I (iii) _______ braced myself as our driver slammed on the brakes.

Blank (i) enhanced, reduced, augmented
Blank (ii) speckled, loomed, receded
Blank (ii) instinctively, lethargically, indolently


7.        In the absence of a (i) _______ effort to protect our environment, the future of the human
race is bleak.  Already, many of the elements essential to supporting life, such as our air and our
water, are being (ii) ________.   We cannot remain (iii) ________ regarding this issue.

Blank (i) enervated, irresolute, concerted
Blank (ii) compromised, distracted, conceded
Blank (iii) engrossed, apathetic, candid


8.        The troops fired a (i) __________ of bullets at the enemy while the rescue team tried (ii)
________ to reach the wounded.  Unfortunately, their efforts proved (iii) ________.

Blank (i) barricade, barrage, bastion
Blank (ii) fastidiously, cogently, feverishly
Blank (iii) successful, effective, futile


9.        The premature death of his father was the primary (i) ________ for Richard’s early
retirement, but the (ii) ________ sharp decline in the stock market has left him (iii) ________
and doubting his decision.

Blank (i) impetus, hurdle, summation
Blank (ii) tenuous, previous, subsequent
Blank (iii) anxious, poised, skewed


10.        The music teacher despaired of being able to transform the (i) ________ that was
currently produced by her sixth graders into harmony in the few weeks that remained before the
winter program was to be presented for the parents.   None of her twenty students could be
labeled even a (ii) _________ singer although she would be hard pressed to (iii) _______some
of the parents of the notion that their child is destined to become the next American Idol.

Blank (i) melody, cacophony, recitation
Blank (ii) mediocre, tremendous, notable
Blank (iii) dissuade, connive, convince






Answers & Analysis

1.        Answers:  (i) vaguest, (ii) certain, (iii) aptitude

Analysis:

The first sentence describes someone at a time when he has just enrolled at the university.  
Lucid means clear.  

Although someone entering a university might indeed have a clear notion of what his field of
study should be, to say he had only the clear notion of what his field of study should be doesn’t
make much sense when the second statement is considered since the second sentence
indicates he has settled on a choice at the conclusion of his first year.  Let’s move on to the
second choice.  

Candor is a noun that means honesty.  Although we could stretch it and say the new student
may have only an honest notion, we wouldn’t say he has an honesty notion.  A noun is not used
to modify another noun, so we can rule out candor.  The third choice, vaguest, means most
uncertain.    

A student who has just enrolled in a university may certainly be most uncertain regarding what
his field of study should be, so vaguest will work.

The use of the word “however” in the second sentence suggests the student has made up his
mind at the end of his first year of study.  Ambivalent means undecided, so ambivalent doesn’t
make sense in this context.  

Certain means sure, which seems more appropriate.  What about apparent?  Apparent means
obvious.  We might say that it was apparent that his field of study should be finance, but to say
that he was apparent it should be finance doesn’t make any sense.  

Thus, “certain” is the best choice for the second blank.

The third sentence explains why the student has decided to study finance.  The first choice,
aptitude, means a natural ability, so it would fit well.  What about the other two choices?  
Aversion means an extreme dislike, which would not explain his decision.  Antipathy is a synonym
for aversion, so it can be rejected for the same reason.  Aptitude is the proper word to use to fill
in the third blank.


2.        Answers:  (i) lucrative, (ii) conducive, (iii) limited

Analysis:  

The passage describes a man who has left a career as a stockbroker to become a teacher in
order to spend more time with his family.

Lucrative means profitable, which could certainly describe the career of a stockbroker.  What
about the other two choices, though?  Flexible doesn’t seem to fit since it means
accommodating, and if his career as a stockbroker were accommodating, he wouldn’t need to
leave it in order to spend more time with his family.  

Menial means unskilled, which doesn’t describe a career as a stockbroker, so we can rule it out.  
Lucrative is the best choice of the three for the first blank.

If John’s lower income was not unfavorable to the higher lifestyle to which his family had become
accustomed, they would not have had to make a lot of sacrifices, so we can rule out unfavorable
as our choice for the second blank.

Unseemly means unfitting, and, again, if the lower income was not unfitting to the higher lifestyle,
no sacrifices would have to be made.  Conducive means favorable.  If John’s lower income was
not favorable to the higher lifestyle to which his family had become accustomed, sacrifices would
indeed have to be made.  Conducive, therefore, makes sense as the appropriate word for the
second blank.

The third sentence provides an example of one of the sacrifices that the family had to make.  To
say that their entertainment choices became expansive doesn’t make sense since expansive
means open or unrestrained.   

The second choice, illuminating, might work if we consider that the choices might be more
enlightening than what they had been doing for entertainment.  However, the last sentence
suggests that the family is replacing the theatre with DVD rentals, which wouldn’t enlighten the
mind any more than watching a movie in a theatre would.  

Limited means restricted, which makes sense since the family would have to restrict their
entertainment to less costly choices.  Limited is the best choice of the three when the context of
the passage is considered.


3.        Answers:  (i) rebel, (ii) assessment, (iii) acumen

Analysis:
A savant is a person of exceptional learning, so to refer to someone as an illiterate savant is
contradictory since illiterate means uneducated.  Therefore, savant will not work in the first
blank.  

A conformist is someone who wants to fit in and, thus, would not have tattoos and piercings, so
conformist does not make sense, either.  A rebel, on the other hand, is someone who has no
desire to conform to society’s standards.

Therefore, of the three choices, rebel seems to be the only one that would fit.

Those who knew him disagreed with the opinion of those who did not.  Assessment means an
evaluation, which would work since those who did not know him were evaluating him based on his
appearance to form their opinion of him.

An achievement is an accomplishment, and the others opinion of him is not an accomplishment,
so the second choice can be ruled out.  A parody is a humorous rendition of a literary or musical
piece, which has nothing to do with this passage.  Therefore, assessment is the word to choose
to fill in the second blank.

Inanity is synonymous with stupidity, and those who knew him would not describe him as a
person of great stupidity since the second sentence indicates they disagreed with the evaluation
of those who did not know him.

Acumen means insight, so it would work since an illiterate would not be described as insightful.   
Idiocy, like inanity, means stupidity, and can be rejected for the same reason as we rejected
inanity.  Acumen is the obvious choice.


4.        Answers:  (i) novice, (ii) attained, (iii) essential

Analysis:
In skiing as in most sports, beginners generally start with less expensive equipment and trade up
as their skill improves.  Therefore, the appropriate choice for the first blank should mean
“beginner,” which the word novice, means.  Advanced or superior skiers are clearly not
beginners in the sport.

Once a certain skill level is reached, the participant generally wants to invest in better, more
expensive equipment.  We need a word that means something similar to the word reached for
the second blank.  

The first choice, atone, means to make amends, so we can reject it.  Derived means obtained
from a source, which isn’t quite what we want to say.  The third choice, attained, means reached
and is the proper word to use in the second blank.

To say that the purchase and wearing of a helmet is superfluous means that it is unnecessary,
and this is clearly not the intent of this sentence.  The word redundant also means unnecessary,
so both of these choices can be eliminated.   The first choice, essential, means necessary and
makes more sense.


5.        Answers:  (i) distraught, (ii) abruptly, (iii) sprawled

Analysis:
Given that Amanda is said to turn the corner to avoid meeting her ex-boyfriend and his new
girlfriend face-to-face, it is unlikely that she was elated when she spied the couple since elated
means overjoyed.  Because she made an effort to avoid them, she probably was not indifferent
upon seeing them.  Indifferent means uncaring.   Her action indicates she was upset.  Distraught
means upset, so it is the correct choice for the first blank.

Since she was upset, we would expect that she would quickly turn the corner.  Languidly means
leisurely, so languidly does not make sense.  Abruptly, on the other hand, means suddenly and
will work. The third choice, voraciously, means hungrily, so it can be ruled out.  Abruptly fits the
second blank best.

Akimbo refers to a specific stance in which the hands are on the hips with the elbows thrust out.  
It is doubtful that Amanda landed in this position when she fell.  Sprawled means spread out, and
that could describe someone who has just fallen, since her legs and/or arms could be spread.  
Strewn means scattered, and while Amanda’s arms and legs may be spread out, they would still
be attached to her body and not scattered.  Sprawled is the best choice for the third blank.


6.        Answers:  (i) reduced, (ii) loomed, (iii) instinctively

Analysis:
Fog limits visibility; it doesn’t enhance it.  Enhance means to improve, so enhanced can be
rejected as the correct choice.  Reduced works since reduced means to decrease.  The third
choice, augmented, means to supplement or enhance, so it can be rejected for the same reason
that we rejected enhanced.

Speckled means to mark with small dots, which is not something a car’s lights do.  Loomed
means to come into view.  It makes sense to say that a car’s lights suddenly came into view in the
thick fog.  

Receded, on the other hand, won’t work because it means to move away, and if the lights were
moving away, the author would not have to brace himself, nor would the driver be slamming on
the brakes.  Loomed is the correct choice.

Instinctively means automatically, which would accurately describe the passenger’s bracing
action in this situation.  Lethargically, which means wearily or sluggishly, wouldn’t seem to apply
in an emergency situation such as the one described.   Indolently is a close cousin of
lethargically and means lazily, which also would not describe how the passenger would react in
this case.  Instinctively is the obvious choice.


7.        Answers:  (i) concerted, (ii) compromised, (iii) apathetic

Analysis:
Enervated means weakened, so it is clearly not the correct choice.  To say that the absence of a
weakened effort to protect our environment makes the future of the human race bleak doesn’t
make sense.

Irresolute means undecided, and the absence of an undecided effort to protect of environment
doesn’t point to a bleak future, either.  Concerted means combined or concentrated.  It does
make sense that a concerted effort to protect our environment might be needed.

To say that many of the elements essential to supporting life are being compromised means that
these elements are being placed in danger, which fits with the context of the first sentence.  To
say the elements are being distracted means they are being sidetracked.  Can air and water be
sidetracked?  To concede is to give in and to say the elements are being conceded doesn’t
make sense.

Assuming we don’t want the future of the human race to be bleak, we wouldn’t say that we
cannot remain engrossed regarding this issue because that would be saying we cannot remain
absorbed regarding this issue, which is the opposite of what we want to say.  

Apathetic means indifferent, however, and we do want to say that we cannot remain indifferent
regarding this issue, so apathetic will work.  Candid means honest or sincere.  We certainly do
not want to say that we cannot remain sincere regarding this issue.  Apathetic is the only choice
that makes sense.


8.        Answers:  (i) barrage, (ii) feverishly, (iii) futile

Analysis:
A barricade is a structure that is erected for the purposes of defense.  Clearly, the troops were
not firing structures of bullets, so barricade can be ruled out.  A barrage is a volley of gunfire
that is often used to protect troops that are moving forward, which seems to be the situation
described in this passage.  A bastion is a fortress or other stronghold, and the phrase “a bastion
of bullets” makes no sense.  

The rescue team wishes to reach the wounded and bring them back behind the front lines.  It will
not have time to do so carefully or meticulously as the word fastidiously would suggest.  The
members of the team may be very convincing in their efforts, and cogently can mean
convincingly, but the best choice is feverishly, which means anxiously.  They would definitely be
anxious in their efforts to reach the wounded.

The word “unfortunately” is the key to the third choice.  Had the mission been successful or
effective, that word would not have been used.  Futile means unsuccessful, which the mission
unfortunately was.


9.        Answers:  (i) impetus, (ii) subsequent, (iii) anxious

Analysis:
An impetus is a driving force, so impetus would make sense since the premature death of his
father could definitely have served as the driving force for Richard’s early retirement.  The
second choice, hurdle, might make sense since a hurdle is an obstacle, and his father’s
premature death might have forced Richard to work longer.

But the rest of the statement indicates that Richard did retire early and now doubts his decision,
so impetus fits the context better than hurdle.  The third choice, summation, means a summary,
which doesn’t work at all within the context of the sentence.  Impetus, then, is the best choice for
the first blank.

Tenuous describes something that is weak or feeble, so we wouldn’t use tenuous to describe a
sharp stock market decline.  Tenuous and sharp are contradictory.  The second choice,
previous, might seem reasonable at first glance, but if the sharp decline in the stock market
occurred prior to Richard’s decision to retire, he could have opted not to do so.  Subsequent
means that the decline happened after Richard’s decision to retire, which explains why Richard
now doubts his decision.

Anxious can mean nervous or worried, which is an apt term to describe investors after a sharp
decline in the stock market, so it would work here to describe Richard.  Poised can mean cool
and calm, which does not describe someone who is doubting a decision he made.  Skewed
means titled or slanted, which also doesn’t work to describe Richard.  Anxious is the proper word
to use for the third blank.


10.        Answers:  (i) cacophony, (ii) mediocre, (iii) dissuade

Analysis:
Since the teacher is despairing of her ability to transform whatever sound is currently being
produced by her students into harmony, melody is not the right choice for the first blank.  A
melody is pleasing to the ears.  

Cacophony, however, is a discordant sound, and will work perfectly.  Recitation can be ruled out
since it means repeating from memory and doesn’t fit the context of the sentence.

Since the teacher is despairing, we can assume that none of her students are good singers;
otherwise, she might hold out more hope.  Mediocre means average, so to say that none could
even be labeled mediocre works.  The other two choices, tremendous and notable, both suggest
a level of talent that is incongruous with the passage.  

To say that the teacher would be hard pressed to do something means that she would find the
task difficult. To say that she would be hard pressed to dissuade some of the parents of the
notion that their child will be the next American Idol means that she would find it hard to persuade
them against that notion.   This makes sense.

Connive means to scheme.  To say she would be hard pressed to connive some of the parents
of any notion doesn’t make sense as a statement.  Convince means the opposite of dissuade.  
Given her students’ lack of talent, there would be no reason that the teacher would want to
convince parents that their student might be the next American Idol.  

Dissuade is the word to use here.
Tips & Strategies for Solving New GRE Verbal Questions -
Sentence Equivalence

The following steps should be followed by students while solving equivalence questions:

1.        Understanding  the message and tone of the author
Students should aim at identifying what or whom the sentence or passage is talking about
When more than one idea is identified, the connection between the two needs to be found out.
The key words used by the author like because, although, in contrast, moreover, similarly etc
helps in determining in which direction the message if traveling.

Secondly try to assess whether the tone is positive, neutral or negative. For example in the
above example the tone is initially negative as reflected by the word despised. Keep a watch on
such hints.


2.
Anticipating Words
Try to fill in the word based on your understanding and the evaluation of the author’s message
and tone as done in step one.


3.
Scanning
Now look into the choices to find the words that you thought .If you do not find any, and then look
for similar word or synonyms. Look through all answer choices before you actually pick the one
that best completes the sentence. You have to be careful here, because two words have to be
chosen. Now there could be two words that are synonyms, but do not fit the answer choice. So,
beware of this trap.


4.
The final answer
Reread the sentence/sentences again to be sure that that the answers you chose make a
logically and grammatically correct sentence. If everything matches then that is the right answer
and does not need reconsideration.


Sample Questions & Tips on how to answer them


1.          The young intern did not have the _______________ needed to sway the committee
towards agreement.

(A)  levigate
(B)  leverage
(C)  mithridate
(D) ullage
(E)  ohmage
(F)  influence


(B) and (F) are the answers:

leverage: (noun) – influence
influence: (noun) – power, authority

Meaning and explanation of the word
Leverage:
Noun
1.         the action of a lever.
2.          the mechanical advantage or power gained by using a lever.
3.          power or ability to act or to influence people, events, decisions, etc.; sway.
4.          the use of a small initial investment, credit, or borrowed funds to gain a very high return
in relation to one's investment, to control a much larger investment, or to reduce one's own
liability for any loss.

Verb (used with object)
5.         to exert power or influence on.
6.          to provide with leverage.
7.          to invest or arrange (invested funds) using leverage.

Related Forms:
leveraged, leveraging – verb

Note/Tip:  If you look at the question closely, you can zero in on the answer by deduction.   
Given that the intern was young, he or she probably did not have as much knowledge or
experience, so his or her input during a discussion may have had little influence.   The other
word in the list that means influence is leverage.



2.          The useless clauses in last year’s vendor contract were _______________ by new,
more stringent legal arrangements made between the global entities.
(A)  ratified
(B)  standardized
(C)  superseded
(D) outmoded
(E)  commended
(F)  facilitated


(C) and (D) are the answers:
superseded: (verb) – replaced
outmoded: (verb) – made unfashionable or obsolete

Meaning and explanation of the word
supersede:
Transitive verb
1.        to cause to be set aside or dropped from use as inferior or obsolete and replaced by
something else
2.        to take the place of in office, function, etc.; succeed
3.        to remove or cause to be removed so as to make way for another; supplant

Related Forms:
superseder, supersession noun

Note/Tip:  If something is useless, you would most likely try to get rid of it or replace it with
something better.   Most of the words in the list are positive actions that you would apply if the
clauses in the contract were beneficial.   The sentence, however, indicates that there are new
legal arrangements which apparently are better than last year’s, so the old ones must be
outmoded or superseded.



3.          Having several seasoned subject-matter experts on the advisory board became a (n)   
____ to the newly-formed S-Corporation.
(A)  commodity
(B)  liability
(C)  aperture
(D) advantage
(E)  vacuity
(F)  ignominity



(A) and (D) are the correct answers:
commodity: (noun) – something of value; an advantage
advantage: (noun) – benefit; favored position or circumstance

Meaning and explanation of the word
commodity:
Noun
1.         an article of trade or commerce, especially a product as distinguished from a service.
2.         something of use, advantage, or value.
3.         stock exchange . Any unprocessed or partially processed good, as grain, fruits, and
vegetables, or precious metals.
4.         obsolete . A quantity of goods.

Related Forms:
noncommodity, adjective
Commodities, noun, plural

Note/Tip:  Given that the S-Corporation was being newly formed, the presence of seasoned
subject-matter experts was definitely an advantage and a commodity.  Many of the other words in
the answer list have a more negative connotation and would not fit the sentence.



4.          The manager’s _______________ style made is difficult to schedule recurring meetings.
(A)  mercurial
(B)  methodical
(C)  phlegmatic
(D) unpredictable
(E)  flamboyant
(F) consonant



(A) and (D) are the answers:
Mercurial: (adjective) – volatile, changeable, fickle
Unpredictable: (adjective) – volatile, erratic

Meaning and explanation of the word
mercurial:
Adjective (used with noun)
1.          often Mercurial
a. Roman Mythology - Of or relating to the god Mercury.
b. Astronomy - Of or relating to the planet Mercury.

Having the characteristics of eloquence, shrewdness, swiftness, and thievishness attributed to
the god Mercury.
Containing or caused by the action of the element mercury.
Quick and changeable in temperament; volatile.

noun
A pharmacological or chemical preparation containing mercury.
Related Forms:
mercurially  adverb

Note/Tip:  If you look at the question closely, you can zero in on the answer prior to seeing the
options. In this case “Why was it difficult to schedule recurring (regularly scheduled) meetings?
Maybe: The manager’s style was changeable, so it was difficult to determine when he would be
available, or His or her style was variable and irregular. These seem to be the possible reasons,
so we would be looking for a word similar to meaning of (A) or (D).This would help to do away
with option B, C, E and F, leaving the possible answers as options A and D.



5.          Structural architects were hired to design a modernized version of the historical balcony’
s crumbling _______________.
(A)  lagniappe
(B)  passementerie
(C)  textuary
(D) haler
(E)  balustrade
(F)  banister



(E) and (F) are the answers:
balustrade: (noun) – railing, banister
banister: (noun) – a protective barrier consisting of a horizontal bar and its supports

Meaning and explanation of the word
balustrade:
noun
1.         a row of balusters topped by a rail.
2.         a low parapet or barrier.

Related Forms:
balustrated, adjective

Note/Tip:  If you imagine what a balcony looks like or consists of, you will quickly select (F)
banister from the list.  The only other word that is similar in meaning to banister is (E) balustrade.



6.           The team performed risk analysis in order to   _____________ any potential problems.
(A)  impede
(B)  mitigate
(C)  microeconomics
(D)  allay
(E)  exacerbates
(F)  discount


(B) and (D) are the answers.
mitigate:  (verb) lighten, lessen
allay:  (verb) to lessen a problem

Meaning and explanation of the word
Mitigate
-Verb
(used with object)
1.        to lessen in force or intensity, as a wrath, grief, harshness or pain; moderate
2.         to make less severe: to mitigate a punishment
3.         to make (a person, ones state of mind, disposition, etc) milder or more gentle; mollify;
appease
-Verb (used without object)
1.         to become milder; lessen in severity
Related forms
Mitigable (adjective)
Mitigatedly (adverb)
Mitigation (noun)
Mitigative, mitigatory (adjective)
Mitigator (noun)

Usage note
Mitigate, whose central meaning is “to lessen” or “make less severe,” is sometimes confused with
militate, “to have effect or influence,” in the phrase mitigate against: This criticism in no way
militates (not mitigates) against your going ahead with your research.  Although this use of
mitigate occasionally occurs in edited writing, it is rare and is widely regarded as an error.
Similarly for the other option i.e. Allay

Note/Tip:  To quickly zero in on at least one correct response; think about why did the team
need to perform risk analysis?  Maybe: To avoid problems, or to reduce problems .These seem
to be the possible reasons, so we would be looking for a word similar to meaning of (B) or (D).
This would help to do away with option A, C and E, leaving with options B, D and F.  



7.        The international bank’s foreign exchange _______________ came under close scrutiny
by internal audit when several undated checks were processed.
(A)  rules
(B)  personates
(C)  policies
(D) lexicographers
(E)  galiots
(F)  barristers


(A) and (C) are the answers:
policies: (noun, plural) – a principle, plan or course of action
rule: (noun) –
1.        an authoritative regulation for action, conduct, method, procedure, arrangement, etc
2.        an established practice that serves as a guide to usage

Meaning and explanation of the word
policy:
noun
1.         definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility, etc
2.         a course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc
3.         action or procedure conforming to or considered with reference to prudence or
expediency.
4.         sagacity; shrewdness
5.         Rare. government; polity.

Related Forms:
policies, plural noun

Note/Tip:  Sometimes the simplest, most obvious answer is correct.  In this case, rules fits the
sentence nicely.  Even if you are not sure of the meaning of the other words, you can quickly
review the list and see that another word which is similar to rules is policies.  You can then safely
eliminate the other options.



8.          The Health Department bans the use of    _____________ in the production of food
products.
(A)  lactose
(B)  triglycerides
(C)  offal
(D)  middlings
(E)  semolina
(F)  refuse


(C) and (F) are the correct answers.
Offal: garbage
Refuse:  trash

(C) Meaning and explanation of the word
Offal
noun
1.        waste parts; esp., the entrails, etc. of a butchered animal
2.        refuse; garbage


Related forms
none

(F) Meaning and explanation of the word
refuse
noun
anything thrown away or rejected as worthless or useless; waste; trash; rubbish
adjective
thrown away or rejected as worthless or useless

Transitive verb Refused, Refusing
1.        to decline to accept; reject
2.    to decline to do, give, or grant
3.        to decline: with an infinitive object: to refuse to go
4.        to decline to accept or submit to (a command, etc.); decline to undergo
5.        to decline to grant the request of (a person)
6.        to stop short at (a fence, etc.), without jumping it: said of a horse
7.        Obsolete to renounce
Intransitive verb
8.        to decline to accept, agree to, or do something

Related Forms:
Refuse

Note/Tip:  Take a quick look through the list of possible answers. The one that stands out
immediately is (F), since it is not something we’d want to find in food. Taking a second pass
through the list, you will notice that most of the items appear to be ingredients found in food, so
by process of elimination, (C), which is similar in meaning to (F) would be the likely answer.



9.         Discretionary projects cannot proceed until they receive funding approval from
corporate   _____________.
(A)  purloiners
(B)  governance
(C)  autoists
(D)  administration
(E)  drudges
(F)  emporium


(B) and (D) are the correct answers.
(B) Meaning and explanation of the word governance
noun
1.        The continuous exercise of authority over a political unit
2.        A system by which a political unit is controlled, i.e. government, regime, rule.

Related forms
None

(D) Meaning and explanation of the word
administration
noun
1.        the act of administering; management; specifically, the management of governmental or
institutional affairs
a.        administrators collectively
b.        the officials in the executive branch of a government and their policies and principles
2.        their term of office
3.        the administering (of punishment, medicine, a sacrament, an oath, etc.)
4.        Law the management and settling (of an estate) by an administrator or executor

Related Forms:
administrative  adjective
administratively  adverb



10.         A  _____________ is expected to be extremely loyal to the person to whom he owes the
duty: he must not put his personal interests before the duty, and must not profit from his position,
unless the principal consents.
(A)  Hibernian
(B)  profiteer
(C)  fiduciary
(D)  trustee
(E)  racketeer
(F)  auctioneer

(C) and (D) are the correct answers.
(C) Meaning and explanation of the word fiduciary
noun
1.         Law . a person to whom property or power is entrusted for the benefit of another.
adjective
2.          Law . of or pertaining to the relation between a fiduciary and his or her principal.
3.          of, based on, or in the nature of trust and confidence, as in public affairs.
4.         depending on public confidence for value or currency, as fiat money.

Related forms
Fiduciaries, noun, plural
Fiduciarily, adverb

Note/Tip:  The sentence refers to someone who is extremely loyal to someone and therefore
would be someone who is trusted, in this case, a trustee or fiduciary.  They also do not seek to
make a profit.  Most of the other words listed are people who make a profit, typically by obtaining
money from someone else.  So those words can be easily eliminated as potential answers.
Types- Reading Comprehension


In the revised GRE Verbal section, the Reading Comprehension section has also undergone
major changes.
Select in passage questions, where a sentence from the passage has to be
highlighted and multiple choice questions where
multiple answers can be correct have made
this section tougher.

These new question types
dilute the effect of some well established shortcut techniques and at
the same time call for more complex thinking than the previous times.
The key to tacking this section is effective reading & PRACTICE.

Sample Passages

PASSAGE 1
Among those who call themselves socialists, two kinds of persons may be distinguished. They
are, in the first place, those who plan for a new order of society, in which private property and
individual competition are to be superseded and other motives to action substituted, are on the
scale of a village community or township, and would be applied to an entire country by the
multiplication of such self-acting unit; of this character are the systems of Owen, of Fourier, and
the more thoughtful and philosophic socialists generally.

The other class, which is more a product of the continent than of Great Britain and may be called
the revolutionary socialists, has people who propose to themselves a much bolder stroke. Their
scheme is the management of the whole productive resources of the country by one central
authority, the general government.

And with this view some of them avow as their purpose that the working classes, or somebody on
their behalf, should take possession of all the property of the country, and administer it for the
general benefit.

Whatever may be the difficulties of the first of these two forms of socialism, the second must
evidently involve the same difficulties and many more. The former, too has the great advantage
that it can be brought into operation progressively and can prove its capabilities by trial, it can be
tried first on a select population and extended to others as their education and cultivation permit.
It need not, and in the natural order of things would not, become an engine of subversion until it
had shown itself capable of being also a means of reconstruction.

It is not so with the other: the aim of that is to substitute the new rule for the old at a single stroke,
and to exchange the amount of good realized under the present system, and its large possibilities
for a plunge without any preparation into the most extreme form of the problem of carrying on the
whole round of the operations of social life without the motive power which has always hitherto
worked the social machinery.

It must be acknowledged that those who would play this game on the strength of their own private
opinion, unconfirmed as yet by any experimental verification – who would forcibly deprive all who
have now a comfortable physical existence of their only present means of preserving it, and
would brave the frightful bloodshed and misery that would ensue if the attempt was resisted-must
have a serene confidence in their own wisdom on the one hand and the recklessness of other
peoples’ suffering on the other, which Roberspierre and St. Just, hitherto the typical instances of
those united attributes, scarcely came up to.

Nevertheless this scheme has great elements of popularity which the more cautious and
reasonable form of socialism has not; because what it professes to do, it promises to do quickly
and holds out hope to the enthusiastic seeing the whole of their aspirations realized in their own
time and at a blow.


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS - SELECT ONE ANSWER CHOICE


1.  
      The word ‘avow’ in the context of the passage means
(a) promise        (b) vow      (c) affirm     (d) deny    (e) proclaim


2.        According to the author, the difference between the two kinds of socialists is that
(a) One consists of thinkers and the others are active people
(b) The first have a definite philosophy and the second don’t have any definite philosophy
(c) The first are planners and the second are doers
(d) The first are the products of Britain, while the other is products of Russia
(e) The first believe in gradual change while the others believe in revolutionary change


3.        According to the philosophy of revolutionary socialism
(a) The government takes over the villages first, and then gradually the whole country.
(b) The government takes over all productive resources of the country at one stroke.
(c) The government declares a police state and rules by decree.
(d) There is no government as such; the people rule themselves by the socialist doctrine.
(e) The government establishes a cooperative in every village for good administration.


4.        It may be inferred from the passage that the author’s sympathies are for
(a) neither side                                (b) the side of the socialist doctrine
(c) the second type of socialism                (d) the first type of socialism
(e) none of the above      



MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS – SELECT ONE OR MORE ANSWER CHOICES

5.  
      Who among of the following is a socialist?
(a) Robespierre             (b) Fourier      (c) None are socialists    


6.        Which of the following according to the author, may be the result of not verifying the
desirability of socialism experimentally first?
(a) Bloodshed                         (b) Deprivation of current comfortable existence
(c) Misery caused by resisting the change



SELECT –IN-PASSAGE QUESTIONS

7.  
      Select the sentence that establishes that the second form of socialism has more difficulties
than the first.
(a)        Whatever may be the difficulties of the first of these two forms of socialism, the second
must evidently involve the same difficulties and many more.
(b)        The former, too has the great advantage that it can be brought into operation
progressively and can prove its capabilities by trial, it can be tried first on a select population and
extended to others as their education and cultivation permit.
(c)        It need not, and in the natural order of things would not, become an engine of subversion
until it had shown itself capable of being also a means of reconstruction.


8.        Select the sentence that establishes that unconcern for other’s suffering and full
confidence in own wisdom as characteristics of St. Just and Robespierre.
(a)        Nevertheless this scheme has great elements of popularity which the more cautious and
reasonable form of socialism has not; because what it professes to do, it promises to do quickly
and holds out hope to the enthusiastic seeing the whole of their aspirations realized in their own
time and at a blow.
(b)        It must be acknowledged that those who would play this game on the strength of their own
private opinion, unconfirmed as yet by any experimental verification – who would forcibly deprive
all who have now a comfortable physical existence of their only present means of preserving it,
and would brave the frightful bloodshed and misery that would ensue if the attempt was resisted-
must have a serene confidence in their own wisdom on the one hand and the recklessness of
other peoples’ suffering on the other, which Roberspierre and St. Just, hitherto the typical
instances of those united attributes, scarcely came up to.
(c)        It need not, and in the natural order of things would not, become an engine of subversion
until it had shown itself capable of being also a means of reconstruction.




PASSAGE 2
Whatever philosophy may be, it is in the world and must relate to it.

It breaks through the shell of the world in order to move into the infinite. But it turns back in order
to find in the finite its always unique historical foundation. It pushes into the furthest horizons
beyond being-in-the-world in order to experience the present in the eternal.

But even the profoundest meditation acquires its meaning by relating back to man’s existence
here and now. Philosophy glimpses the highest criteria, the starry heaven of the possible, and
seeks in the light of the seemingly impossible the way to man’s dignity in the phenomenon of his
empirical existence.

Philosophy addresses itself to individuals. It creates a free community of those who rely on each
other in their will for truth into this community the philosophic man would like to enter. It is there in
the world all the time, but cannot become a worldly institution without losing freedom of its truth.
He cannot know whether he belongs to it.

No authority decides on his acceptance. He wants to live in his thinking in such a way as to make
his acceptance possible. But how does the world relate to philosophy? There are chairs of
philosophy at the universities.

Now-a-days they are an embarrassment. Philosophy is politely respected because of tradition,
but despised in secret. The general opinion is: it has nothing of importance to say. Neither has it
any practical value. It is named in public but does it really exist? Its existence is proved at least by
the defense measures it provokes.

We can see this in the form of comments like: Philosophy is too complicated. I don’t understand it.
It’s beyond me. It’s something for professionals. I have no gift for it. Therefore it doesn’t concern
me. But that is like saying I don’t need to bother work or scholarship without thinking or
questioning its meaning and, for the rest, have ‘opinions’ and be content with that.

The defense becomes fanatical. A benighted vital instinct hates philosophy. It is dangerous. If I
understood it I would have to change my life. I would find myself in another frame of mind, see
everything in a different light, and have to judge anew.

Better now think philosophically! Then there are the accusers, who want to replace the obsolete
philosophy by something new and totally different. It is mistrusted as the utterly mendacious end
product of a bankrupt theology.

The meaninglessness of philosophical propositions is made fun of. Philosophy is denounced as
the willing handmaiden of political and other powers. For many politicians, their wretched trade
would be easier if philosophy did not exist at all. Masses and functionaries are easier to
manipulate when they do not think but only have a regimented intelligence.

People must be prevented from becoming serious. Therefore, it is better for philosophy to be
boring. Let that chairs of philosophy rot. The more piffle is taught, the sooner people will be
blinkered against the light of philosophy.

Thus philosophy is surrounded by enemies, most of whom are not conscious of being such.
Bourgeois complacency, conventionality the satisfactions of economic prosperity, the
appreciation of science only for its technical achievements, the absolute will to power, the
bonhomie of politicians, the fanaticism of ideologies, the literary self-assertiveness of talented
writers-in all these things people parade their anti-philosophy.

They do notice it because they do not realize what they are doing. They are unaware that their
anti-philosophy in itself a philosophy, but a perverted one, and that this anti-philosophy, if
elucidated, would annihilate itself.



MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS - SELECT ONE ANSWER CHOICE

9.  
      A suitable title for the passage would be:
(a) Man and Philosophy                               (b) Philosophical Angst
(c) The Philosophical Debate                (d) The Enemies of Philosophy
(e) A Defense of Philosophy


10.        The word ‘chairs’ in the context of the passage, means:
(a) wooden-faced people                (b) departments
(c) separate chairs for philosophers        (d) reserved seats for students of philosophy
(e) luxurious sofas          


                                                                                      
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS – SELECT ONE OR MORE ANSWER CHOICES

11.   
     Which of the following is false, keeping the passage in the mind?
(a) Philosophy is evidently respected        (b) Philosophy is secretly despised
(c) Philosophy is universally admired


12.        Which is the following is a charge against philosophy?
(a) That it is obsolete                                        (b) That it is mendacious
(c) That it is immoral


13.        Which is the following is mentioned as a function of philosophy in the passage?
(a) It shows the way to man’s dignity in the face of his empirical existence
(b) It breaks through the shell of the world in order to move into the infinite
(c) It makes the world a better place to live in



SELECT –IN-PASSAGE QUESTIONS

14.  
      Select the sentence that establishes the existence of Philosophy.
(a)        Whatever philosophy may be, it is in the world and must relate to it.
(b)        It breaks through the shell of the world in order to move into the infinite.
(c)        Thus philosophy is surrounded by enemies, most of whom are not conscious of being
such.


15.        Select the sentence that establishes that politicians would be happy in the absence of
Philosophy.
(a)        Thus philosophy is surrounded by enemies, most of whom are not conscious of being
such.
(b)        Philosophy is denounced as the willing handmaiden of political and other powers.
(c)        For many politicians, their wretched trade would be easier if philosophy did not exist at all.




Answers Passage 1

1.(a) The word avow means promise. The passage states some people in class of
revolutionary socialists avow as their purpose that the working classes or some
body on their behalf, should take possession of all property of the country, and
administer it for general benefit.


2. (e) The passage states that difference exists in their attitude towards change. The first one
believes in gradual change while the other believes in revolutionary change.


3. (a) The government takes over the villages first, and then gradually the whole country. The
passage tells that in the class of revolutionary socialists there are people who propose to
themselves a much bolder stroke. Their scheme includes management of all productive
resources of country by general government.  


4. (a) The author sympathies are with the neither of the two sides.


5. (a, b) The passage reveals that Robespierre, Fourier, Owen all are socialist.    


6(a), (b) (c). All are the reasons mentioned in the passage.


7. (a) Whatever may be the difficulties of the first of these two forms of socialism, the second
must evidently involve the same difficulties and many more.


8.(b) It must be acknowledged that those who would play this game on the strength of their own
private opinion, unconfirmed as yet by any experimental verification – who would forcibly deprive
all who have now a comfortable physical existence of their only present means of preserving it,
and would brave the frightful bloodshed and misery that would ensue if the attempt was resisted-
must have a serene confidence in their own wisdom on the one hand and the recklessness of
other peoples’ suffering on the other, which Roberspierre and St. Just, hitherto the typical
instances of those united attributes, scarcely came up to.



Answers Passage 2

9. (e).The passage explains that philosophy is named in public. Moreover, its existence is proved
at least by the defense measures it provokes. Hence, most suitable title for the passage would be
‘A DEFENCE OF PHILOSOPHY’.


10. (d) CHAIRS in context of passage refers to department.


11. (a) and(c) The passage says that philosophy is politely respected because of tradition but
despised in secret. Option (a) and (c) are therefore false.


12. (a) & (b) The passage does not speak that philosophy is immoral. Option (a) and (b) are
described as characteristic of Philosophy in the passage.


13(a) & (b) Philosophy makes world a better place to live has not been mentioned anywhere in
the passage. The other options are mentioned in the passage.


14. (a) Whatever philosophy may be, it is in the world and must relate to it.


15. (c) For many politicians, their wretched trade would be easier if philosophy did not exist at all

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